Program Official

Principal Investigator

Awardee Organization

Johns Hopkins University
United States

Fiscal Year
Activity Code
Early Stage Investigator Grants (ESI)
Not Applicable
Project End Date

Glycoprotein Biomarkers for Early Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and it is the second highest contributor to cancer death among men in the U.S. A major issue in prostate cancer detection and therapy is that we currently have no method to reliably distinguish aggressive prostate cancer from non-aggressive prostate cancer. This leads to significant unnecessary suffering among prostate cancer patients. We hypothesize that specific glycoproteins or their glycosylation specifically altered in aggressive prostate cancer cells can be used as biomarkers to distinguish patients with aggressive from those with non-aggressive prostate cancer. We propose in four specific aims to develop novel glycoprotein biomarkers that can detect aggressive cancer in pre-surgical urine or biopsy tissues. In Aim 1, we will analyze urinary glycoproteins from patients with aggressive cancer and non-aggressive cancer using high throughput glycoproteomics and mass spectrometry to identify glycoproteins associated with aggressive prostate cancer. In Aim 2, we will validate the identified candidate urinary glycoproteins by targeted analysis of candidate glycoproteins from additional urine samples in independent testing sets of prostate cancer urine specimens from the EDRN network. In Aim 3, we will develop highly sensitive, specific, and high throughput ELISA or mass spectrometry based selective reaction monitoring assays as noninvasive urine tests using the glycoprotein biomarkers identified and validated from Aim 1 and Aim 2 and validate the performance of the tests for aggressive prostate cancer biomarkers. We will further determine the clinical utility of the validated tests to detect patients with aggressive prostate cancer in active surveillance program. In Aim 4, we will develop and optimize the immunohistochemistry assays for the glycoproteins associated aggressive prostate cancer tissues and validate these tissue glycoproteins using tissue microarrays. We will then further determine the clinical utility of the immunohistochemistry assays as biopsy based tissue tests for the early detection of patients with aggressive prostate cancer in active surveillance program. If successful, the identified and validated biomarkers will be tested by EDRN biomarker reference laboratory (BRL) and clinical validation center (CVC) in retrospective and prospective studies. Biomarkers capable of distinguishing aggressive from nonaggressive prostate cancer will allow men with aggressive prostate cancer to receive appropriate treatment earlier in the course of their diseases and prevent men with non- aggressive prostate cancer from overtreatment.


  • Yang S, Toghi Eshghi S, Chiu H, DeVoe DL, Zhang H. Glycomic analysis by glycoprotein immobilization for glycan extraction and liquid chromatography on microfluidic chip. Analytical chemistry. 2013 Nov 5;85(21):10117-25. Epub 2013 Oct 25. PMID: 24111616
  • Tian Y, Kelly-Spratt KS, Kemp CJ, Zhang H. Mapping tissue-specific expression of extracellular proteins using systematic glycoproteomic analysis of different mouse tissues. Journal of proteome research. 2010 Nov 5;9(11):5837-47. Epub 2010 Oct 14. PMID: 20828161
  • Toghi Eshghi S, Yang W, Hu Y, Shah P, Sun S, Li X, Zhang H. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides. Scientific reports. 2016 Nov 21;6:37189. PMID: 27869200
  • Chen J, Xi J, Tian Y, Bova GS, Zhang H. Identification, prioritization, and evaluation of glycoproteins for aggressive prostate cancer using quantitative glycoproteomics and antibody-based assays on tissue specimens. Proteomics. 2013 Aug;13(15):2268-77. Epub 2013 Jul 5. PMID: 23716368
  • Lih TM, Dong M, Mangold L, Partin A, Zhang H. Urinary marker panels for aggressive prostate cancer detection. Scientific reports. 2022 Sep 1;12(1):14837. PMID: 36050450
  • Chen J, Toghi Eshghi S, Bova GS, Li QK, Li X, Zhang H. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens. Clinical proteomics. 2013 Dec 1;10(1):18. PMID: 24289299
  • Uzoma I, Hu J, Cox E, Xia S, Zhou J, Rho HS, Guzzo C, Paul C, Ajala O, Goodwin CR, Jeong J, Moore C, Zhang H, Meluh P, Blackshaw S, Matunis M, Qian J, Zhu H. Global Identification of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO) Substrates Reveals Crosstalk between SUMOylation and Phosphorylation Promotes Cell Migration. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2018 May;17(5):871-888. Epub 2018 Feb 8. PMID: 29438996
  • Clark DJ, Schnaubelt M, Hoti N, Hu Y, Zhou Y, Gooya M, Zhang H. Impact of Increased FUT8 Expression on the Extracellular Vesicle Proteome in Prostate Cancer Cells. Journal of proteome research. 2020 Jun 5;19(6):2195-2205. Epub 2020 May 18. PMID: 32378902
  • Li Y, Tao SC, Bova GS, Liu AY, Chan DW, Zhu H, Zhang H. Detection and verification of glycosylation patterns of glycoproteins from clinical specimens using lectin microarrays and lectin-based immunosorbent assays. Analytical chemistry. 2011 Nov 15;83(22):8509-16. Epub 2011 Oct 26. PMID: 21975078
  • Yang W, Shah P, Hu Y, Toghi Eshghi S, Sun S, Liu Y, Zhang H. Comparison of Enrichment Methods for Intact N- and O-Linked Glycopeptides Using Strong Anion Exchange and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography. Analytical chemistry. 2017 Nov 7;89(21):11193-11197. Epub 2017 Oct 12. PMID: 29016103
  • Yang W, Laeyendecker O, Wendel SK, Zhang B, Sun S, Zhou JY, Ao M, Moore RD, Jackson JB, Zhang H. Glycoproteomic study reveals altered plasma proteins associated with HIV elite suppressors. Theranostics. 2014 Sep 18;4(12):1153-63. doi: 10.7150/thno.9510. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25285165
  • Toonstra C, Hu Y, Zhang H. Deciphering the Roles of N-Glycans on Collagen-Platelet Interactions. Journal of proteome research. 2019 Jun 7;18(6):2467-2477. Epub 2019 May 15. PMID: 31055923
  • Yang SJ, Zhang H. Glycan analysis by reversible reaction to hydrazide beads and mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2012 Mar 6;84(5):2232-8. Epub 2012 Feb 10. PMID: 22304307
  • Yang W, Jackson B, Zhang H. Identification of glycoproteins associated with HIV latently infected cells using quantitative glycoproteomics. Proteomics. 2016 Jul;16(13):1872-80. Epub 2016 Jun 8. PMID: 27195445
  • Sun S, Zhang B, Aiyetan P, Zhou JY, Shah P, Yang W, Levine DA, Zhang Z, Chan DW, Zhang H. Analysis of N-glycoproteins using genomic N-glycosite prediction. Journal of proteome research. 2013 Dec 6;12(12):5609-15. Epub 2013 Nov 15. PMID: 24164404
  • Yang S, Clark D, Liu Y, Li S, Zhang H. High-throughput analysis of N-glycans using AutoTip via glycoprotein immobilization. Scientific reports. 2017 Aug 31;7(1):10216. PMID: 28860471
  • Shah P, Zhang B, Choi C, Yang S, Zhou J, Harlan R, Tian Y, Zhang Z, Chan DW, Zhang H. Tissue proteomics using chemical immobilization and mass spectrometry. Analytical biochemistry. 2015 Jan 15;469:27-33. Epub 2014 Oct 2. PMID: 25283129
  • Tian Y, Yao Z, Roden RB, Zhang H. Identification of glycoproteins associated with different histological subtypes of ovarian tumors using quantitative glycoproteomics. Proteomics. 2011 Dec;11(24):4677-87. Epub 2011 Nov 23. PMID: 22113853
  • Wang X, Chen J, Li QK, Peskoe SB, Zhang B, Choi C, Platz EA, Zhang H. Overexpression of α (1,6) fucosyltransferase associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Glycobiology. 2014 Oct;24(10):935-44. Epub 2014 Jun 5. PMID: 24906821
  • Yang S, Chen L, Sun S, Shah P, Yang W, Zhang B, Zhang Z, Chan DW, Kass DA, van Eyk JE, Zhang H. Glycoproteins identified from heart failure and treatment models. Proteomics. 2015 Jan;15(2-3):567-79. Epub 2014 Oct 9. PMID: 25141849
  • Dong M, Lih TM, Chen SY, Cho KC, Eguez RV, Höti N, Zhou Y, Yang W, Mangold L, Chan DW, Zhang Z, Sokoll LJ, Partin A, Zhang H. Urinary glycoproteins associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Theranostics. 2020 Oct 25;10(26):11892-11907. doi: 10.7150/thno.47066. eCollection 2020. PMID: 33204318
  • Zhu G, Liu Z, Epstein JI, Davis C, Christudass CS, Carter HB, Landis P, Zhang H, Chung JY, Hewitt SM, Miller MC, Veltri RW. A Novel Quantitative Multiplex Tissue Immunoblotting for Biomarkers Predicts a Prostate Cancer Aggressive Phenotype. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2015 Dec;24(12):1864-72. Epub 2015 Sep 24. PMID: 26404961
  • Yang S, Chen L, Chan DW, Li QK, Zhang H. Protein signatures of molecular pathways in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC): comparison of glycoproteomics and global proteomics. Clinical proteomics. 2017 Aug 15;14:31. doi: 10.1186/s12014-017-9166-9. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28814946
  • Yang S, Li Y, Shah P, Zhang H. Glycomic analysis using glycoprotein immobilization for glycan extraction. Analytical chemistry. 2013 Jun 4;85(11):5555-61. Epub 2013 May 20. PMID: 23688297
  • Meany DL, Hackler L Jr, Zhang H, Chan DW. Tyramide signal amplification for antibody-overlay lectin microarray: a strategy to improve the sensitivity of targeted glycan profiling. Journal of proteome research. 2011 Mar 4;10(3):1425-31. Epub 2011 Jan 4. PMID: 21133419
  • Kawahara R, Chernykh A, Alagesan K, Bern M, Cao W, Chalkley RJ, Cheng K, Choo MS, Edwards N, Goldman R, Hoffmann M, Hu Y, Huang Y, Kim JY, Kletter D, Liquet B, Liu M, Mechref Y, Meng B, Neelamegham S, Nguyen-Khuong T, Nilsson J, Pap A, Park GW, Parker BL, Pegg CL, Penninger JM, Phung TK, Pioch M, Rapp E, Sakalli E, Sanda M, Schulz BL, Scott NE, Sofronov G, Stadlmann J, Vakhrushev SY, Woo CM, Wu HY, Yang P, Ying W, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zaia J, Haslam SM, Palmisano G, Yoo JS, Larson G, Khoo KH, Medzihradszky KF, Kolarich D, Packer NH, Thaysen-Andersen M. Community evaluation of glycoproteomics informatics solutions reveals high-performance search strategies for serum glycopeptide analysis. Nature methods. 2021 Nov;18(11):1304-1316. Epub 2021 Nov 1. PMID: 34725484
  • Aiyetan P, Thomas SN, Zhang Z, Zhang H. MRMPlus: an open source quality control and assessment tool for SRM/MRM assay development. BMC bioinformatics. 2015 Dec 12;16:411. PMID: 26652794
  • Bausch-Fluck D, Hofmann A, Bock T, Frei AP, Cerciello F, Jacobs A, Moest H, Omasits U, Gundry RL, Yoon C, Schiess R, Schmidt A, Mirkowska P, Härtlová A, Van Eyk JE, Bourquin JP, Aebersold R, Boheler KR, Zandstra P, Wollscheid B. A mass spectrometric-derived cell surface protein atlas. PloS one. 2015 Apr 20;10(3):e0121314. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121314. eCollection 2015. PMID: 25894527
  • Meany DL, Zhang Z, Sokoll LJ, Zhang H, Chan DW. Glycoproteomics for prostate cancer detection: changes in serum PSA glycosylation patterns. Journal of proteome research. 2009 Feb;8(2):613-9. PMID: 19035787
  • Wang H, Li QK, Auster M, Gong G. PET and CT features differentiating infectious/inflammatory from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy: A correlated study with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. Radiology of infectious diseases (Beijing, China). 2018 Mar;5(1):7-13. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 31692939
  • Sun S, Zhang H. Large-Scale Measurement of Absolute Protein Glycosylation Stoichiometry. Analytical chemistry. 2015 Jul 7;87(13):6479-82. Epub 2015 Jun 15. PMID: 26066578
  • Thomas SN, Zhang H. Targeted proteomic assays for the verification of global proteomics insights. Expert review of proteomics. 2016 Oct;13(10):897-899. Epub 2016 Sep 1. PMID: 27565203
  • Jia X, Chen J, Sun S, Yang W, Yang S, Shah P, Hoti N, Veltri B, Zhang H. Detection of aggressive prostate cancer associated glycoproteins in urine using glycoproteomics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2016 Dec;16(23):2989-2996. PMID: 27749016
  • Sun S, Hu Y, Jia L, Eshghi ST, Liu Y, Shah P, Zhang H. Site-Specific Profiling of Serum Glycoproteins Using N-Linked Glycan and Glycosite Analysis Revealing Atypical N-Glycosylation Sites on Albumin and α-1B-Glycoprotein. Analytical chemistry. 2018 May 15;90(10):6292-6299. Epub 2018 May 1. PMID: 29671580
  • Höti N, Yang S, Hu Y, Shah P, Haffner MC, Zhang H. Overexpression of α (1,6) fucosyltransferase in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2018 Apr;21(1):137-146. Epub 2018 Jan 16. PMID: 29339807
  • Li D, Chiu H, Chen J, Zhang H, Chan DW. Integrated analyses of proteins and their glycans in a magnetic bead-based multiplex assay format. Clinical chemistry. 2013 Jan;59(1):315-24. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23099556
  • Yang G, Höti N, Chen SY, Zhou Y, Wang Q, Betenbaugh M, Zhang H. One-Step Enrichment of Intact Glycopeptides From Glycoengineered Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. Frontiers in chemistry. 2020 Apr 17;8:240. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00240. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32363175
  • Bennun SV, Hizal DB, Heffner K, Can O, Zhang H, Betenbaugh MJ. Systems Glycobiology: Integrating Glycogenomics, Glycoproteomics, Glycomics, and Other 'Omics Data Sets to Characterize Cellular Glycosylation Processes. Journal of molecular biology. 2016 Aug 14;428(16):3337-3352. Epub 2016 Jul 15. PMID: 27423401
  • Baycin-Hizal D, Tabb DL, Chaerkady R, Chen L, Lewis NE, Nagarajan H, Sarkaria V, Kumar A, Wolozny D, Colao J, Jacobson E, Tian Y, O'Meally RN, Krag SS, Cole RN, Palsson BO, Zhang H, Betenbaugh M. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Journal of proteome research. 2012 Nov 2;11(11):5265-76. Epub 2012 Oct 5. PMID: 22971049
  • Toghi Eshghi S, Li X, Zhang H. Targeted analyte detection by standard addition improves detection limits in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2012 Sep 18;84(18):7626-32. Epub 2012 Aug 28. PMID: 22877355
  • Dong M, Lih TM, Ao M, Hu Y, Chen SY, Eguez RV, Zhang H. Data-Independent Acquisition-Based Mass Spectrometry (DIA-MS) for Quantitative Analysis of Intact N-Linked Glycopeptides. Analytical chemistry. 2021 Oct 19;93(41):13774-13782. Epub 2021 Oct 8. PMID: 34622651
  • Almaraz RT, Tian Y, Bhattarcharya R, Tan E, Chen SH, Dallas MR, Chen L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Konstantopoulos K, Yarema KJ. Metabolic flux increases glycoprotein sialylation: implications for cell adhesion and cancer metastasis. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2012 Jul;11(7):M112.017558. Epub 2012 Mar 28. PMID: 22457533
  • Yang W, Song A, Ao M, Xu Y, Zhang H. Large-scale site-specific mapping of the O-GalNAc glycoproteome. Nature protocols. 2020 Aug;15(8):2589-2610. Epub 2020 Jul 17. PMID: 32681153
  • Xu Y, Zhang H. Putting the pieces together: mapping the O-glycoproteome. Current opinion in biotechnology. 2021 Oct;71:130-136. Epub 2021 Aug 4. PMID: 34358979
  • Tian Y, Zhang H. Characterization of disease-associated N-linked glycoproteins. Proteomics. 2013 Feb;13(3-4):504-11. PMID: 23255236
  • Zhou Y, Lih TM, Pan J, Höti N, Dong M, Cao L, Hu Y, Cho KC, Chen SY, Eguez RV, Gabrielson E, Chan DW, Zhang H, Li QK. Proteomic signatures of 16 major types of human cancer reveal universal and cancer-type-specific proteins for the identification of potential therapeutic targets. Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020 Dec 7;13(1):170. PMID: 33287876
  • Yang S, Zhang H. Solid-phase glycan isolation for glycomics analysis. Proteomics. Clinical applications. 2012 Dec;6(11-12):596-608. PMID: 23090885
  • Thomas SN, Harlan R, Chen J, Aiyetan P, Liu Y, Sokoll LJ, Aebersold R, Chan DW, Zhang H. Multiplexed Targeted Mass Spectrometry-Based Assays for the Quantification of N-Linked Glycosite-Containing Peptides in Serum. Analytical chemistry. 2015 Nov 3;87(21):10830-8. Epub 2015 Oct 21. PMID: 26451657
  • van Oostrum M, Müller M, Klein F, Bruderer R, Zhang H, Pedrioli PGA, Reiter L, Tsapogas P, Rolink A, Wollscheid B. Classification of mouse B cell types using surfaceome proteotype maps. Nature communications. 2019 Dec 16;10(1):5734. PMID: 31844046
  • Baycin-Hizal D, Tian Y, Akan I, Jacobson E, Clark D, Wu A, Jampol R, Palter K, Betenbaugh M, Zhang H. GlycoFish: a database of zebrafish N-linked glycoproteins identified using SPEG method coupled with LC/MS. Analytical chemistry. 2011 Jul 1;83(13):5296-303. Epub 2011 Jun 8. PMID: 21591763
  • Ao MH, Zhang H, Sakowski L, Sharma R, Illei PB, Gabrielson E, Askin F, Li QK. The utility of a novel triple marker (combination of TTF1, napsin A, and p40) in the subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer. Human pathology. 2014 May;45(5):926-34. Epub 2014 Jan 25. PMID: 24746197
  • Cao L, Lih TM, Hu Y, Schnaubelt M, Chen SY, Zhou Y, Guo C, Dong M, Yang W, Eguez RV, Chen L, Clark DJ, Sodhi A, Li QK, Zhang H. Characterization of core fucosylation via sequential enzymatic treatments of intact glycopeptides and mass spectrometry analysis. Nature communications. 2022 Jul 7;13(1):3910. PMID: 35798744
  • Li QK, Chen L, Ao MH, Chiu JH, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Chan DW. Serum fucosylated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) improves the differentiation of aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers. Theranostics. 2015 Jan 1;5(3):267-76. doi: 10.7150/thno.10349. eCollection 2015. PMID: 25553114
  • Wang C, Höti N, Lih TM, Sokoll LJ, Zhang R, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Chan DW. Development of a glycoproteomic strategy to detect more aggressive prostate cancer using lectin-immunoassays for serum fucosylated PSA. Clinical proteomics. 2019 Apr 6;16:13. doi: 10.1186/s12014-019-9234-4. eCollection 2019. PMID: 30996714
  • Sun S, Hu Y, Ao M, Shah P, Chen J, Yang W, Jia X, Tian Y, Thomas S, Zhang H. N-GlycositeAtlas: a database resource for mass spectrometry-based human N-linked glycoprotein and glycosylation site mapping. Clinical proteomics. 2019 Sep 7;16:35. doi: 10.1186/s12014-019-9254-0. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31516400
  • Li QK. Critical Role of Pathologists in the Accurate Subclassification of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) for Targeted Therapies: Evidence- Based Practice and the Role of IHC Markers. Diagnostic pathology: open access. 2016;1. (3). Epub 2016 Dec 31. PMID: 29722354
  • Liu Y, Chen J, Sethi A, Li QK, Chen L, Collins B, Gillet LC, Wollscheid B, Zhang H, Aebersold R. Glycoproteomic analysis of prostate cancer tissues by SWATH mass spectrometry discovers N-acylethanolamine acid amidase and protein tyrosine kinase 7 as signatures for tumor aggressiveness. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2014 Jul;13(7):1753-68. Epub 2014 Apr 16. PMID: 24741114
  • Chen SY, Clark DJ, Zhang H. High-Throughput Analyses of Glycans, Glycosites, and Intact Glycopeptides Using C4-and C18/MAX-Tips and Liquid Handling System. Current protocols. 2021 Jul;1(7):e186. PMID: 34232571
  • Yang S, Rubin A, Eshghi ST, Zhang H. Chemoenzymatic method for glycomics: Isolation, identification, and quantitation. Proteomics. 2016 Jan;16(2):241-56. Epub 2015 Nov 6. PMID: 26390280
  • Zarif JC, Yang W, Hernandez JR, Zhang H, Pienta KJ. The Identification of Macrophage-enriched Glycoproteins Using Glycoproteomics. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2017 Jun;16(6):1029-1037. Epub 2017 Mar 27. PMID: 28348171
  • Tian Y, Bova GS, Zhang H. Quantitative glycoproteomic analysis of optimal cutting temperature-embedded frozen tissues identifying glycoproteins associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Analytical chemistry. 2011 Sep 15;83(18):7013-9. Epub 2011 Aug 18. PMID: 21780747
  • Pan J, Hu Y, Sun S, Chen L, Schnaubelt M, Clark D, Ao M, Zhang Z, Chan D, Qian J, Zhang H. Glycoproteomics-based signatures for tumor subtyping and clinical outcome prediction of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Nature communications. 2020 Dec 1;11(1):6139. PMID: 33262351
  • Baycin-Hizal D, Gottschalk A, Jacobson E, Mai S, Wolozny D, Zhang H, Krag SS, Betenbaugh MJ. Physiologic and pathophysiologic consequences of altered sialylation and glycosylation on ion channel function. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2014 Oct 17;453(2):243-53. Epub 2014 Jun 24. PMID: 24971539
  • Chen SY, Dong M, Yang G, Zhou Y, Clark DJ, Lih TM, Schnaubelt M, Liu Z, Zhang H. Glycans, Glycosite, and Intact Glycopeptide Analysis of N-Linked Glycoproteins Using Liquid Handling Systems. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Jan 21;92(2):1680-1686. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31859482
  • Marzinke MA, Choi CH, Chen L, Shih IeM, Chan DW, Zhang H. Proteomic analysis of temporally stimulated ovarian cancer cells for biomarker discovery. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2013 Feb;12(2):356-68. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PMID: 23172893
  • Yang S, Hu Y, Sokoll L, Zhang H. Simultaneous quantification of N- and O-glycans using a solid-phase method. Nature protocols. 2017 Jun;12(6):1229-1244. Epub 2017 May 18. PMID: 28518173
  • Zhou Y, Lih TM, Yang G, Chen SY, Chen L, Chan DW, Zhang H, Li QK. An Integrated Workflow for Global, Glyco-, and Phospho-proteomic Analysis of Tumor Tissues. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Jan 21;92(2):1842-1849. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31859488
  • Tian Y, Esteva FJ, Song J, Zhang H. Altered expression of sialylated glycoproteins in breast cancer using hydrazide chemistry and mass spectrometry. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2012 Jun;11(6):M111.011403. Epub 2012 Feb 7. PMID: 22318369
  • Osmani L, Askin F, Gabrielson E, Li QK. Current WHO guidelines and the critical role of immunohistochemical markers in the subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC): Moving from targeted therapy to immunotherapy. Seminars in cancer biology. 2018 Oct;52(Pt 1):103-109. Epub 2017 Nov 26. PMID: 29183778
  • Yang W, Ao M, Hu Y, Li QK, Zhang H. Mapping the O-glycoproteome using site-specific extraction of O-linked glycopeptides (EXoO). Molecular systems biology. 2018 Nov 20;14(11):e8486. PMID: 30459171
  • Zhang H, Ao M, Boja A, Schnaubelt M, Hu Y. OmicsOne: associate omics data with phenotypes in one-click. Clinical proteomics. 2021 Dec 11;18(1):29. PMID: 34895137
  • Shu J, Dang L, Zhang D, Shah P, Chen L, Zhang H, Sun S. Dynamic analysis of proteomic alterations in response to N-linked glycosylation inhibition in a drug-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line. The FEBS journal. 2019 Apr;286(8):1594-1605. Epub 2019 Apr 2. PMID: 30884134
  • Toghi Eshghi S, Shah P, Yang W, Li X, Zhang H. GPQuest: A Spectral Library Matching Algorithm for Site-Specific Assignment of Tandem Mass Spectra to Intact N-glycopeptides. Analytical chemistry. 2015;87(10):5181-8. Epub 2015 May 6. PMID: 25945896
  • Zhou Y, Höti N, Ao M, Zhang Z, Zhu H, Li L, Askin F, Gabrielson E, Zhang H, Li QK. Expression of p16 and p53 in non-small-cell lung cancer: clinicopathological correlation and potential prognostic impact. Biomarkers in medicine. 2019 Jun;13(9):761-771. Epub 2019 Jun 3. PMID: 31157548
  • Tian Y, Almaraz RT, Choi CH, Li QK, Saeui C, Li D, Shah P, Bhattacharya R, Yarema KJ, Zhang H. Identification of sialylated glycoproteins from metabolically oligosaccharide engineered pancreatic cells. Clinical proteomics. 2015 Apr 11;12(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12014-015-9083-8. eCollection 2015. PMID: 25987888
  • Höti N, Shah P, Hu Y, Yang S, Zhang H. Proteomics analyses of prostate cancer cells reveal cellular pathways associated with androgen resistance. Proteomics. 2017 Mar;17. (6). PMID: 28116790
  • Hu Y, Shah P, Clark DJ, Ao M, Zhang H. Reanalysis of Global Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Data Identified a Large Number of Glycopeptides. Analytical chemistry. 2018 Jul 3;90(13):8065-8071. Epub 2018 Jun 11. PMID: 29741879
  • Xu Y, Wang Y, Höti N, Clark DJ, Chen SY, Zhang H. The next "sweet" spot for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Glycoprotein for early detection. Mass spectrometry reviews. 2023 Mar;42(2):822-843. Epub 2021 Nov 12. PMID: 34766650
  • Shah P, Yang W, Sun S, Pasay J, Faraday N, Zhang H. Platelet glycoproteins associated with aspirin-treatment upon platelet activation. Proteomics. 2017 Mar;17. (6). Epub 2016 Sep 12. PMID: 27452734
  • Yang S, Zhang H. Glycomic analysis of glycans released from glycoproteins using chemical immobilization and mass spectrometry. Current protocols in chemical biology. 2014 Sep 9;6(3):191-208. PMID: 25205566
  • Li QK, Shah P, Li Y, Aiyetan PO, Chen J, Yung R, Molena D, Gabrielson E, Askin F, Chan DW, Zhang H. Glycoproteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid identifies tumor-associated glycoproteins from lung adenocarcinoma. Journal of proteome research. 2013 Aug 2;12(8):3689-96. Epub 2013 Jul 11. PMID: 23802180
  • Song G, Chen L, Zhang B, Song Q, Yu Y, Moore C, Wang TL, Shih IM, Zhang H, Chan DW, Zhang Z, Zhu H. Proteome-wide Tyrosine Phosphorylation Analysis Reveals Dysregulated Signaling Pathways in Ovarian Tumors. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2019 Mar;18(3):448-460. Epub 2018 Dec 6. PMID: 30523211
  • Harlan R, Zhang H. Targeted proteomics: a bridge between discovery and validation. Expert review of proteomics. 2014 Dec;11(6):657-61. Epub 2014 Oct 28. PMID: 25348939
  • Cho KC, Clark DJ, Schnaubelt M, Teo GC, Leprevost FDV, Bocik W, Boja ES, Hiltke T, Nesvizhskii AI, Zhang H. Deep Proteomics Using Two Dimensional Data Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Mar 17;92(6):4217-4225. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32058701
  • Liu Y, Hüttenhain R, Collins B, Aebersold R. Mass spectrometric protein maps for biomarker discovery and clinical research. Expert review of molecular diagnostics. 2013 Nov;13(8):811-25. Epub 2013 Oct 21. PMID: 24138574
  • Li QK, Chen J, Hu Y, Höti N, Lih TM, Thomas SN, Chen L, Roy S, Meeker A, Shah P, Chen L, Bova GS, Zhang B, Zhang H. Proteomic characterization of primary and metastatic prostate cancer reveals reduced proteinase activity in aggressive tumors. Scientific reports. 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18936. PMID: 34556748
  • Li Y, Tian Y, Rezai T, Prakash A, Lopez MF, Chan DW, Zhang H. Simultaneous analysis of glycosylated and sialylated prostate-specific antigen revealing differential distribution of glycosylated prostate-specific antigen isoforms in prostate cancer tissues. Analytical chemistry. 2011 Jan 1;83(1):240-5. Epub 2010 Dec 8. PMID: 21141837
  • Sun S, Zhou JY, Yang W, Zhang H. Inhibition of protein carbamylation in urea solution using ammonium-containing buffers. Analytical biochemistry. 2014 Feb 1;446:76-81. Epub 2013 Oct 23. PMID: 24161613
  • Dong M, Lih TM, Höti N, Chen SY, Ponce S, Partin A, Zhang H. Development of Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays for the Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer Using Urinary Glycoproteins. Journal of proteome research. 2021 Jul 2;20(7):3590-3599. Epub 2021 Jun 9. PMID: 34106707
  • Yang S, Zhang L, Thomas S, Hu Y, Li S, Cipollo J, Zhang H. Modification of Sialic Acids on Solid Phase: Accurate Characterization of Protein Sialylation. Analytical chemistry. 2017 Jun 20;89(12):6330-6335. Epub 2017 May 25. PMID: 28505427
  • Clark DJ, Hu Y, Schnaubelt M, Fu Y, Ponce S, Chen SY, Zhou Y, Shah P, Zhang H. Simple Tip-Based Sample Processing Method for Urinary Proteomic Analysis. Analytical chemistry. 2019 May 7;91(9):5517-5522. Epub 2019 Apr 8. PMID: 30924636
  • Cho KC, Oh S, Wang Y, Rosenthal LS, Na CH, Zhang H. Evaluation of the Sensitivity and Reproducibility of Targeted Proteomic Analysis Using Data-Independent Acquisition for Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. Journal of proteome research. 2021 Sep 3;20(9):4284-4291. Epub 2021 Aug 12. PMID: 34384221
  • De Leoz MLA, Duewer DL, Fung A, Liu L, Yau HK, Potter O, Staples GO, Furuki K, Frenkel R, Hu Y, Sosic Z, Zhang P, Altmann F, Grunwald-Grube C, Shao C, Zaia J, Evers W, Pengelley S, Suckau D, Wiechmann A, Resemann A, Jabs W, Beck A, Froehlich JW, Huang C, Li Y, Liu Y, Sun S, Wang Y, Seo Y, An HJ, Reichardt NC, Ruiz JE, Archer-Hartmann S, Azadi P, Bell L, Lakos Z, An Y, Cipollo JF, Pucic-Bakovic M, Štambuk J, Lauc G, Li X, Wang PG, Bock A, Hennig R, Rapp E, Creskey M, Cyr TD, Nakano M, Sugiyama T, Leung PA, Link-Lenczowski P, Jaworek J, Yang S, Zhang H, Kelly T, Klapoetke S, Cao R, Kim JY, Lee HK, Lee JY, Yoo JS, Kim SR, Suh SK, de Haan N, Falck D, Lageveen-Kammeijer GSM, Wuhrer M, Emery RJ, Kozak RP, Liew LP, Royle L, Urbanowicz PA, Packer NH, Song X, Everest-Dass A, Lattová E, Cajic S, Alagesan K, Kolarich D, Kasali T, Lindo V, Chen Y, Goswami K, Gau B, Amunugama R, Jones R, Stroop CJM, Kato K, Yagi H, Kondo S, Yuen CT, Harazono A, Shi X, Magnelli PE, Kasper BT, Mahal L, Harvey DJ, O'Flaherty R, Rudd PM, Saldova R, Hecht ES, Muddiman DC, Kang J, Bhoskar P, Menard D, Saati A, Merle C, Mast S, Tep S, Truong J, Nishikaze T, Sekiya S, Shafer A, Funaoka S, Toyoda M, de Vreugd P, Caron C, Pradhan P, Tan NC, Mechref Y, Patil S, Rohrer JS, Chakrabarti R, Dadke D, Lahori M, Zou C, Cairo C, Reiz B, Whittal RM, Lebrilla CB, Wu L, Guttman A, Szigeti M, Kremkow BG, Lee KH, Sihlbom C, Adamczyk B, Jin C, Karlsson NG, Örnros J, Larson G, Nilsson J, Meyer B, Wiegandt A, Komatsu E, Perreault H, Bodnar ED, Said N, Francois YN, Leize-Wagner E, Maier S, Zeck A, Heck AJR, Yang Y, Haselberg R, Yu YQ, Alley W, Leone JW, Yuan H, Stein SE. NIST Interlaboratory Study on Glycosylation Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies: Comparison of Results from Diverse Analytical Methods. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2020 Jan;19(1):11-30. Epub 2019 Oct 7. PMID: 31591262
  • Sun S, Shah P, Eshghi ST, Yang W, Trikannad N, Yang S, Chen L, Aiyetan P, Höti N, Zhang Z, Chan DW, Zhang H. Comprehensive analysis of protein glycosylation by solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycans and glycosite-containing peptides. Nature biotechnology. 2016 Jan;34(1):84-8. Epub 2015 Nov 16. PMID: 26571101
  • Clark DJ, Zhang H. Proteomic approaches for characterizing renal cell carcinoma. Clinical proteomics. 2020 Jul 29;17:28. doi: 10.1186/s12014-020-09291-w. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32742246
  • Toghi Eshghi S, Yang S, Wang X, Shah P, Li X, Zhang H. Imaging of N-linked glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections using MALDI mass spectrometry. ACS chemical biology. 2014 Sep 19;9(9):2149-56. Epub 2014 Jul 30. PMID: 25029481
  • Dang L, Jia L, Zhi Y, Li P, Zhao T, Zhu B, Lan R, Hu Y, Zhang H, Sun S. Mapping human N-linked glycoproteins and glycosylation sites using mass spectrometry. Trends in analytical chemistry : TRAC. 2019 May;114:143-150. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PMID: 31831916
  • Thomas SN, Zhang H, Cotter RJ. Application of quantitative proteomics to the integrated analysis of the ubiquitylated and global proteomes of xenograft tumor tissues. Clinical proteomics. 2015 May 20;12(1):14. doi: 10.1186/s12014-015-9086-5. eCollection 2015. PMID: 26019700
  • Yang S, Mishra S, Chen L, Zhou JY, Chan DW, Chatterjee S, Zhang H. Integrated glycoprotein immobilization method for glycopeptide and glycan analysis of cardiac hypertrophy. Analytical chemistry. 2015 Oct 6;87(19):9671-8. PMID: 26378618
  • Yang S, Höti N, Yang W, Liu Y, Chen L, Li S, Zhang H. Simultaneous analyses of N-linked and O-linked glycans of ovarian cancer cells using solid-phase chemoenzymatic method. Clinical proteomics. 2017 Jan 13;14:3. doi: 10.1186/s12014-017-9137-1. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28100988
  • Aiyetan P, Zhang B, Chen L, Zhang Z, Zhang H. M2Lite: An Open-source, Light-weight, Pluggable and Fast Proteome Discoverer MSF to mzIdentML Tool. Journal of bioinformatics. 2014 Apr 28;1(2):40-49. PMID: 25346941
  • Zhou Y, Yang W, Ao M, Höti N, Gabrielson E, Chan DW, Zhang H, Li QK. Proteomic Analysis of the Air-Way Fluid in Lung Cancer. Detection of Periostin in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL). Frontiers in oncology. 2020 Jul 3;10:1072. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.01072. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32719746
  • Li Y, Shah P, De Marzo AM, Van Eyk JE, Li Q, Chan DW, Zhang H. Identification of glycoproteins containing specific glycans using a lectin-chemical method. Analytical chemistry. 2015;87(9):4683-7. Epub 2015 Apr 20. PMID: 25837443
  • McClain A, Sakowski L, Conti M, Zhang H, Li QK. Intranuclear Inclusions in Conventional Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC): Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis. Archive of urological research. 2018;2(1):5-7. Epub 2018 Oct 24. PMID: 31565700
  • Aiyetan P, Zhang B, Zhang Z, Zhang H. XGlycScan: An Open-source Software For N-linked Glycosite Assignment, Quantification and Quality Assessment of Data from Mass Spectrometry-based Glycoproteomic Analysis. MOJ proteomics & bioinformatics. 2014;1. (1). PMID: 25346946
  • Song J, Ma S, Sokoll LJ, Eguez RV, Höti N, Zhang H, Mohr P, Dua R, Patil D, May KD, Williams S, Arnold R, Sanda MG, Chan DW, Zhang Z. A panel of selected serum protein biomarkers for the detection of aggressive prostate cancer. Theranostics. 2021 Apr 15;11(13):6214-6224. doi: 10.7150/thno.55676. eCollection 2021. PMID: 33995654
  • Shah P, Wang X, Yang W, Toghi Eshghi S, Sun S, Hoti N, Chen L, Yang S, Pasay J, Rubin A, Zhang H. Integrated Proteomic and Glycoproteomic Analyses of Prostate Cancer Cells Reveal Glycoprotein Alteration in Protein Abundance and Glycosylation. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2015 Oct;14(10):2753-63. Epub 2015 Aug 9. PMID: 26256267
  • Shaukat I, Kern JJ, Höti N, Zhang H, Li J, Zheng G, Askin F, Gabrielson E, Li QK. Detection of RAS and RAS-associated alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. A correlation between molecular findings and tumor characteristics. Human pathology. 2019 Feb;84:18-25. Epub 2018 Sep 25. PMID: 30266251
  • Shah P, Yang S, Sun S, Aiyetan P, Yarema KJ, Zhang H. Mass spectrometric analysis of sialylated glycans with use of solid-phase labeling of sialic acids. Analytical chemistry. 2013 Apr 2;85(7):3606-13. Epub 2013 Mar 18. PMID: 23445396
  • Inouye CM, Anagnostou V, Li QK. Primary parotid adenocarcinoma metastasis to the spleen with PIK3CA mutation: cytological findings and review of the literature. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 2017;10(5):5999-6005. Epub 2017 May 15. PMID: 29263768
  • Höti N, Yang S, Aiyetan P, Kumar B, Hu Y, Clark D, Eroglu AU, Shah P, Johnson T, Chowdery WH, Zhang H, Rodriguez R. Overexpression of Exportin-5 Overrides the Inhibitory Effect of miRNAs Regulation Control and Stabilize Proteins via Posttranslation Modifications in Prostate Cancer. Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). 2017 Oct;19(10):817-829. Epub 2017 Sep 4. PMID: 28881308
  • Thomas SN, Friedrich B, Schnaubelt M, Chan DW, Zhang H, Aebersold R. Orthogonal Proteomic Platforms and Their Implications for the Stable Classification of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Subtypes. iScience. 2020 Jun 26;23(6):101079. Epub 2020 Apr 18. PMID: 32534439
  • Zhou J, Yang W, Hu Y, Höti N, Liu Y, Shah P, Sun S, Clark D, Thomas S, Zhang H. Site-Specific Fucosylation Analysis Identifying Glycoproteins Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Using Tandem Affinity Enrichments of Intact Glycopeptides Followed by Mass Spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2017 Jul 18;89(14):7623-7630. Epub 2017 Jul 3. PMID: 28627880
  • Stewart AN, Tan SY, Clark DJ, Zhang H, Wong GW. N-Linked Glycosylation-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms Regulating CTRP12 Cleavage, Secretion, and Stability. Biochemistry. 2019 Feb 12;58(6):727-741. Epub 2019 Jan 4. PMID: 30566828
  • Li QK, Gabrielson E, Askin F, Chan DW, Zhang H. Glycoproteomics using fluid-based specimens in the discovery of lung cancer protein biomarkers: promise and challenge. Proteomics. Clinical applications. 2013 Jan;7(1-2):55-69. PMID: 23112109
  • Collins BC, Hunter CL, Liu Y, Schilling B, Rosenberger G, Bader SL, Chan DW, Gibson BW, Gingras AC, Held JM, Hirayama-Kurogi M, Hou G, Krisp C, Larsen B, Lin L, Liu S, Molloy MP, Moritz RL, Ohtsuki S, Schlapbach R, Selevsek N, Thomas SN, Tzeng SC, Zhang H, Aebersold R. Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry. Nature communications. 2017 Aug 21;8(1):291. PMID: 28827567
  • Tian Y, Choi CH, Li QK, Rahmatpanah FB, Chen X, Kim SR, Veltri R, Chia D, Zhang Z, Mercola D, Zhang H. Overexpression of periostin in stroma positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer. PloS one. 2015 Mar 17;10(3):e0121502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121502. eCollection 2015. PMID: 25781169
  • Theodros D, Murter BM, Sidhom JW, Nirschl TR, Clark DJ, Chen L, Tam AJ, Blosser RL, Schwen ZR, Johnson MH, Pierorazio PM, Zhang H, Ganguly S, Pardoll DM, Zarif JC. High-dimensional Cytometry (ExCYT) and Mass Spectrometry of Myeloid Infiltrate in Clinically Localized Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Identifies Novel Potential Myeloid Targets for Immunotherapy. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2020 Nov;19(11):1850-1859. Epub 2020 Jul 31. PMID: 32737216
  • Höti N, Lih TS, Pan J, Zhou Y, Yang G, Deng A, Chen L, Dong M, Yang RB, Tu CF, Haffner MC, Kay Li Q, Zhang H. A Comprehensive Analysis of FUT8 Overexpressing Prostate Cancer Cells Reveals the Role of EGFR in Castration Resistance. Cancers. 2020 Feb 18;12. (2). PMID: 32085441
  • Li QK, Gabrielson E, Zhang H. Application of glycoproteomics for the discovery of biomarkers in lung cancer. Proteomics. Clinical applications. 2012 Jun;6(5-6):244-56. PMID: 22641610
  • Lilo MT, Allison D, Wang Y, Ao M, Gabrielson E, Geddes S, Zhang H, Askin F, Li QK. Expression of P40 and P63 in lung cancers using fine needle aspiration cases. Understanding clinical pitfalls and limitations. Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology. 2016 May-Jun;5(3):123-132. PMID: 27699149
  • Zieren RC, Dong L, Clark DJ, Kuczler MD, Horie K, Moreno LF, Lih TM, Schnaubelt M, Vermeulen L, Zhang H, de Reijke TM, Pienta KJ, Amend SR. Defining candidate mRNA and protein EV biomarkers to discriminate ccRCC and pRCC from non-malignant renal cells in vitro. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2021 Jul 31;38(9):105. PMID: 34331598
  • Wang Y, Hu Y, Höti N, Huang L, Zhang H. Characterization of In Vivo Protein Complexes via Chemical Cross-Linking and Mass Spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2022 Jan 25;94(3):1537-1542. Epub 2021 Dec 28. PMID: 34962381
  • Liu Y, Gonzàlez-Porta M, Santos S, Brazma A, Marioni JC, Aebersold R, Venkitaraman AR, Wickramasinghe VO. Impact of Alternative Splicing on the Human Proteome. Cell reports. 2017 Aug 1;20(5):1229-1241. PMID: 28768205
  • Yang W, Ao M, Song A, Xu Y, Sokoll L, Zhang H. Mass Spectrometric Mapping of Glycoproteins Modified by Tn-Antigen Using Solid-Phase Capture and Enzymatic Release. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Jul 7;92(13):9230-9238. Epub 2020 Jun 16. PMID: 32510927
  • Liu Y, Hüttenhain R, Surinova S, Gillet LC, Mouritsen J, Brunner R, Navarro P, Aebersold R. Quantitative measurements of N-linked glycoproteins in human plasma by SWATH-MS. Proteomics. 2013 Apr;13(8):1247-56. Epub 2013 Mar 11. PMID: 23322582
  • Yang S, Wang M, Chen L, Yin B, Song G, Turko IV, Phinney KW, Betenbaugh MJ, Zhang H, Li S. QUANTITY: An Isobaric Tag for Quantitative Glycomics. Scientific reports. 2015 Nov 30;5:17585. PMID: 26616285
  • Ponce S, Zhang H. Developing quantitative assays for six urinary glycoproteins using parallel reaction monitoring, data-independent acquisition, and TMT-based data-dependent acquisition. Proteomics. 2023 Apr;23(7-8):e2200072. Epub 2023 Jan 11. PMID: 36592098
  • Chen J, Shah P, Zhang H. Solid phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides using hydrazide tip. Analytical chemistry. 2013 Nov 19;85(22):10670-4. Epub 2013 Oct 30. PMID: 24079330
  • Yang S, Yuan W, Yang W, Zhou J, Harlan R, Edwards J, Li S, Zhang H. Glycan analysis by isobaric aldehyde reactive tags and mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry. 2013 Sep 3;85(17):8188-95. Epub 2013 Aug 12. PMID: 23895018
  • Sun S, Zhang H. Identification and Validation of Atypical N-Glycosylation Sites. Analytical chemistry. 2015 Dec 15;87(24):11948-51. Epub 2015 Nov 24. PMID: 26593774
  • Yang G, Hu Y, Sun S, Ouyang C, Yang W, Wang Q, Betenbaugh M, Zhang H. Comprehensive Glycoproteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. Analytical chemistry. 2018 Dec 18;90(24):14294-14302. Epub 2018 Dec 3. PMID: 30457839
  • Wang Y, Lih TM, Höti N, Sokoll LJ, Chesnut G, Petrovics G, Kohaar I, Zhang H. Differentially expressed glycoproteins in pre- and post-digital rectal examination urine samples for detecting aggressive prostate cancer. Proteomics. 2023 Apr;23(7-8):e2200023. Epub 2023 Jan 26. PMID: 36479985