Resources and Tools

The following resources and tools have been compiled by consortium members as part of the standardization working group. These resources and tools can be used as guidance for researchers and other stakeholders interested in summarizing and visualizing patient tolerability data:

Selected Scoring and Summary Measures

Table 1 includes a list of scoring and summary measures developed by the NCI Moonshot consortium with the purpose of summarizing and analyzing patient tolerability data. A short description of each measure and links to the primary reference and additional resources and applications are included in the table. Codes to calculate and apply the scores are available in Table 2.

Table 1. Scoring and Summary Measures*

Scoring and summary measures Description References and Resources
Composite grade
Figure 1. Stacked Bar Chart - Blue and Red Gradient
Composite grading algorithm mapping PRO-CTCAE symptom item attributes to a single numerical grade to align with other standardized tools assessing adverse events. Reference
Basch E, Becker C, Rogak LJ, et al. Clin Trials. 2021.*

Resources/examples
  • Langlais BT, Dueck AC. CRAN: ProAE. 2021*

Toxicity index
Toxicity equationThe frequency of toxicity plotted for Cabozantinib and Mitoxantrone

Summary measure of CTCAE and PRO-CTCAE data that accounts for frequency and burden of toxicities and preserves the ranking of the toxicities. Reference
Rogatko A, Babb JS, Wang H, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2004.

Resources/examples
  • Razaee ZS, Amini AA, Diniz MA, et al. Stat Med. 2021.*
  • Gresham G, Diniz MA, Razaee ZS, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2020.*
  • Henry L, Kim S, Hays R, et al. JCO 2022*
  • Langlais B, Mazza G, Thanarajasingam G, et al. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2022.*
Baseline adjusted maximum grade
 
Summary measure which accounts for pretreatment symptomatic burden or pre-existing adverse events.  Reference
  • Dueck AC, Scher HI, Bennett AV, et al. JAMA Oncol. 2020.*
Resources/examples
  • Basch E, Rogak LJ, Dueck AC. Clin Ther. 2016.
  • Gounder MM, Mahoney MR, Van Tine BA, et al. NEJM 2018.
  • Langlais BT, Dueck AC. CRAN: ProAE. 2021.*
* Moonshot consortium contribution

Table 2 includes a list of publicly available programming and codes, visualization tools, guides, and patient-facing material developed by the Moonshot Consortium members.  Additional information, recommendations, and software requirements can be accessed through the links. References to publications and examples of applications are also provided.

Table 2. Publicly available programming, guides, and related tools for use with PRO-CTCAE

Description Link
ProAE: A collection of tools to facilitate standardized analysis and graphical procedures when using PRO-CTCAE (available in SAS and R programming languages). Scoring applications, statistical tables, graphical approaches, summary measure applications, and missing data analysis approaches are available. R package
https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ProAE/index.html

SAS macros
https://github.com/biostatgirl/ProAE
ToxT: Methods and tools to analyze toxicity and patient-reported data over time (available in SAS)
A bar graph depicting the percent of patients with CTCAE Grade
SAS macros
https://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/toxt/

Resources/examples
  • Thanarajasingam G, Leonard JP, Witzig TE, et al. Lancet Haematol. 2020.
  • Thanarajasingam G, Atherton PJ, Novotny PJ, et al. Lancet Oncol. 2016.
visae: Implementation of Shiny app to visualize adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events using stacked correspondence analysis (available in R).
A visae representation of the Shiny app to visualize adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events.
R package
https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/visae/index.html

Resources/examples
ShinySankey: Example of a Sankey diagram to visualize toxicity and QOL data by treatment type and over time (available in R).
An example of a Sankey diagram to visualize toxicity and QOL data by treatment type and over time


 
R code
https://github.com/mluu921/u01shinysankey

Resources/examples
Color Schemes for graphical displays
A chart of blue/red gradient, colorblind friendly, and grey scale hexidecimal color codes
R package
Guidelines for evaluating impacts of missing data Resources/examples
* Produced by members of consortium
Color Schemes Recommendations

A survey was conducted among 60 consortium members to understand respondents’ preferences in color schemes of various figures displaying drug tolerability data. Based on 60 responses of preferences of consortium members, the following observations and recommendations were made:

  • Respondents prefer the blue/red gradient when considering aesthetics (Figure 1)
     
  • Respondents prefer the multicolored/contrasting for ease of distinguishing between groups and between severity/frequency (Figure 2)
     
  • Most respondents prefer to show the missing data in gray over reporting sample sizes for ease of understanding missing data, though this was not a unanimous or near-unanimous preference. (Figure 3)

Figure 1. Stacked Bar Chart - Blue and Red Gradient

Figure 1. Stacked Bar Chart - Blue and Red Gradient

Figure 2. Vertical Butterfly Plots

Figure 2. Vertical Butterfly Plots

Figure 3. Graphical Representation of Missing Data

Figure 3. Graphical Representation of Missing Data

Other PRO and PRO-CTCAE related resources
Description Link(s)
PRO-CTCAE and PED-PRO-CTCAE
Patient-reported outcome measurement system developed by the National Cancer Institute to capture symptomatic adverse events in patients on cancer clinical trials.
PROCTCAE
PED-PRO-CTCAE
PROTEUS: Patient-Reported Outcomes Tools: Engaging Users & Stakeholders
The PROTEUS Consortium promotes tools and resources to optimize the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials to ensure that patients, clinicians, and other decision-makers can make the best decisions about treatment options.
https://more.bham.ac.uk/proteus/
SISAQOL
Setting International Standards in Analyzing Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life Endpoints Data.
https://qol.eortc.org/projectqol/sisaqol/
CDISC: Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium
The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium is a standards developing organization dealing with medical research data linked with healthcare, to "enable information system interoperability to improve medical research and related areas of healthcare".
https://www.cdisc.org/standards
FDA Project patient voice
Online platform for patients and caregivers to access patient-reported symptom data from cancer clinical trials of FDA-approved products.
https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/oncology-center-excellence/project-patient-voice
Oncology Center of Excellence Patient Focused Drug Development (OCE PFDD)
Program focused on engagement and education, research and science, and regulatory and policy in collaboration with FDA Centers and external stakeholders involved in patient-reported outcome research in oncology.
https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/oncology-center-excellence/patient-focused-drug-development
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) patient-focused drug development (PFDD) program and guidance series
Program goal to incorporate patient’s voice into drug development and evaluation and provide guidance on the collection of patient input, methods to identify what is important to patients, the selection, development and modification of clinical outcome assessment and incorporation of clinical outcome assessments into endpoints for regulatory decision-making.
https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-approval-process-drugs/cder-patient-focused-drug-development

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-approval-process-drugs/fda-patient-focused-drug-development-guidance-series-enhancing-incorporation-patients-voice-medical
Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting (May 2021)
Meeting information and event materials from the ODAC that discussed the development and implementation of the PED-PRO-CTCAE tool for including the patient’s voice and assess tolerability and toxicity in oncology trials.
https://www.fda.gov/advisory-committees/advisory-committee-calendar/updated-information-may-11-12-2021-meeting-pediatric-oncology-subcommittee-oncologic-drugs-advisory
Last Updated: November 3, 2022