Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a standard treatment for localized prostate cancer with 60,000 procedures per year in the U.S. Commonly recognized long-term adverse events of RP include persistent urinary incontinence (~20%) and erectile dysfunction (~65%). Less commonly known risks include penile shortening (~50%), penile deformity/curvature (~15%), and inguinal hernia (~15%). These adverse events lower healthrelated quality of life, cause decision regret and require additional treatment. A new surgical technique, pelvic fascia-sparing RP (PFS-RP), preserves fascial support structures, arterial supply to the penis, and nerves that are severed and resected during conventional RP. Several retrospective series have shown significaly reduced urinary and erectile dysfunction after PFS-RP. However, these studies have been small and had limited followup for oncologic endpoints. A multi-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with longer follow-up is clearly indicated. However, adequately powered surgical RCTs face significant challenges: 1) a traditional RCT of this new technique would cost ~$10 million; and 2) typically, such RCTs accrue only about six patients per center per year and often close prematurely due to low accrual. Indeed, there is almost a complete absence of sufficiently powered RCTs in oncologic surgery. After considering these challenges, we developed two innovative methodological approaches that have strong published, preliminary data. The first is to use a two-stage RCT consent that lowers information overload, decisional burden, and anxiety. Making consent easier for patients also reduces the burden on surgeon investigators making them more willing to accrue. Preliminary data suggest that two-stage consent dramatically improves accrual – in one recent study, 98% of eligible patients were accrued - while maintaining patient understanding of consent as assessed by a standard questionnaire. The second innovation employs a web-based portal to incentivize self-entry of patient-reported outcomes by giving patients feedback and advice in response to their answers. This portal has already been used by ~15,000 patients and captured the endpoint for two RCTs. We propose a RCT using these two novel methodologic approaches. This will randomized 600 patients to PFS-RP or traditional RP conducted at four centers that receive NCI SPORE awards for prostate cancer. We will test whether PFS-RP is able to reduce urinary and erectile function, as well as immediate surgical complications, while being non-inferior for cancer control. The study will include a rigorous surgeon quality assurance approach, involving surgical videos uploaded to a central site and quantitative scoring of discrete surgical steps. Successful completion of the study would not only provide evidence on the best practice for one of the most common cancer operations but provide a novel methodological approach that could facilitate future studies in surgical oncology.