PostExcision Events in Human Nucleotide Excision Repair.

Author(s): Kemp MG,  Hu J

Journal: Photochem Photobiol

Date: 2017 Jan

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): ARP

PubMed ID: 27645806

PMC ID: PMC5315629

Abstract: The nucleotide excision repair system removes a wide variety of DNA lesions from the human genome, including photoproducts induced by ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight. A defining feature of nucleotide excision repair is its dual incision mechanism, in which two nucleolytic incision events on the damaged strand of DNA at sites bracketing the lesion generate a damage-containing DNA oligonucleotide and a single-stranded DNA gap approximately 30 nucleotides in length. Although the early events of nucleotide excision repair, which include lesion recognition and the dual incisions, have been explored in detail and are reasonably well understood, the fate of the single-stranded DNA gaps and excised oligonucleotide products of repair have not been as extensively examined. In this review, recent findings that address these less-explored aspects of nucleotide excision repair are discussed and support the concept that postincision gap and excised oligonucleotide processing are critical steps in the cellular response to DNA damage induced by UV light and other environmental carcinogens. Defects in these latter stages of repair lead to cell death and other DNA damage signaling responses and may therefore contribute to a number of human disease states associated with exposure to UV wavelengths of sunlight, including skin cancer, aging and autoimmunity.