Vitamin D Pathway and Other Related Polymorphisms and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Author(s): Torkko K,  Till C,  Tangen CM,  Goodman PJ,  Song X,  Schenk JM,  Lucia MS,  Peters U,  van Bokhoven A,  Thompson IM,  Neuhouser ML

Journal: Cancer Prev Res (Phila)

Date: 2020 Jun

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): NCORP

PubMed ID: 32102946

PMC ID: PMC7272271

Abstract: Vitamin D may influence prostate cancer risk, but evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases (n = 1,128) and controls (n = 1,205) were frequency matched on age, first-degree relative with prostate cancer, and PCPT treatment arm (finasteride/placebo); African-Americans were oversampled and case/control status was biopsy confirmed. We selected 21 SNPs in vitamin D-related genes (VDR, GC, C10orf88, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, DHCR7, and NADSYN1) to test genotype and genotype-treatment interactions in relation to prostate cancer. We also tested mean serum 25(OH)D differences by minor allele distributions and tested for serum 25(OH)D-genotype interactions in relation to prostate cancer risk. Log-additive genetic models (Bonferroni-corrected within genes) adjusted for age, body mass index, PSA, and family history of prostate cancer revealed a significant interaction between treatment arm and GC/rs222016 (finasteride OR = 1.37, placebo OR = 0.85; Pinteraction < 0.05), GC/rs222014 (finasteride OR = 1.36, placebo OR = 0.85; Pinteraction < 0.05), and CYP27B1/rs703842 (finasteride OR = 0.76, placebo OR = 1.10; Pinteraction < 0.05) among Caucasians, and C10orf88/rs6599638 (finasteride OR = 4.68, placebo OR = 1.39; Pinteraction < 0.05) among African-Americans. VDR/rs1544410 and CYP27B1/rs703842 had significant treatment interactions for high-grade disease among Caucasians (finasteride OR = 0.81, placebo OR = 1.40; Pinteraction < 0.05 and finasteride OR = 0.70, placebo OR = 1.28; Pinteraction < 0.05, respectively). Vitamin D-related SNPs influenced serum 25(OH)D, but gene-serum 25(OH)D effect modification for prostate cancer was marginally observed only for CYP24A1/rs2248359. In conclusion, evidence that vitamin D-related genes or gene-serum 25(OH)D associations influence prostate cancer risk is modest. We found some evidence for gene-finasteride interaction effects for prostate cancer in Caucasians and African-Americans. Results suggest only minimal associations of vitamin D with total or high-grade prostate cancer.