Final Results of NRG Oncology RTOG 0246: An Organ-Preserving Selective Resection Strategy in Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive Chemoradiation.

Author(s): Swisher SG,  Moughan J,  Komaki RU,  Ajani JA,  Wu TT,  Hofstetter WL,  Konski AA,  Willett CG

Journal: J Thorac Oncol

Date: 2017 Feb

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): NCORP

PubMed ID: 27729298

PMC ID: PMC5263046

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The impact of selective surgical resection for patients with esophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation has not been clearly evaluated long-term. METHODS: NRG (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group) Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0246 was a multi-institutional, single-arm, open-label, nonrandomized phase II study that enrolled 43 patients from September 2003 to March 2008 with clinical stage T1-4N0-1M0 squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction from 19 sites. Patients received induction chemotherapy with fluorouracil (650 mg/m2/d), cisplatin (15 mg/m2/d), and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2/d) for two cycles followed by concurrent chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy of radiation (1.8 Gy per fraction) and daily fluorouracil (300 mg/m2/d) with cisplatin (15 mg/m2/d) over the first 5 days. After definitive chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for residual disease. Selective esophagectomy was considered only for patients with residual disease after chemoradiation (clinical incomplete response) or recurrent disease on surveillance. RESULTS: This report looks at the long-term outcome of this selective surgical strategy. With a median follow-up of 8.1 years (minimum to maximum for 12 alive patients 7.2-9.8 years), the estimated 5- and 7-year survival rates are 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.3-51.0) and 31.7% (95% CI: 18.3-46.0). Clinical complete response was achieved in 15 patients (37%), with 5- and 7-yearr survival rates of 53.3% (95% CI: 26.3-74.4) and 46.7% (95% CI: 21.2-68.7). Esophageal resection was not required in 20 of 41 patients (49%) on this trial. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term results of NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0246 demonstrate promising efficacy of a selective surgical resection strategy and suggest the need for larger randomized studies to further evaluate this organ-preserving approach.