Plasma tocopherols and risk of prostate cancer in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

Author(s): Albanes D,  Till C,  Klein EA,  Goodman PJ,  Mondul AM,  Weinstein SJ,  Taylor PR,  Parnes HL,  Gaziano JM,  Song X,  Fleshner NE,  Brown PH,  Meyskens FL Jr,  Thompson IM

Journal: Cancer Prev Res (Phila)

Date: 2014 Sep

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): PUCRG, CCOP, COPTRG

PubMed ID: 24961880

PMC ID: PMC4408535

Abstract: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed higher prostate cancer incidence in men supplemented with high-dose α-tocopherol. We, therefore, examined whether presupplementation plasma α-tocopherol or γ-tocopherol was associated with overall or high-grade prostate cancer. A stratified case-cohort sample that included 1,746 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed through June 2009 and a subcohort of 3,211 men was derived from the SELECT trial of 35,533 men. Plasma was collected at entry from 2001 to 2004, and median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0-7.9 years). Incidence of prostate cancer as a function of plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and supplementation with α-tocopherol or selenomethionine was estimated by the hazard ratio (HR). Plasma γ-tocopherol was not associated with prostate cancer. Men with higher α-tocopherol concentrations seemed to have risk similar to that of men with lower concentrations [overall HR for fifth (Q5) vs. first quintile (Q1), 1.21; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.66; P-trend = 0.24; in the trial placebo arm, Q5 HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.44-1.62; P-trend = 0.66]. We found a strong positive plasma α-tocopherol association among men receiving the trial selenomethionine supplement [Q5 HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.29-3.22; P-trend = 0.005]. A positive plasma α-tocopherol-prostate cancer association also seemed limited to high-grade disease (Gleason grade, 7-10; overall Q5 HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13-2.24; P-trend = 0.001; among men receiving selenomethionine, Q5 HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.32-3.40; P-trend = 0.0002). Our findings indicate that higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations may interact with selenomethionine supplements to increase high-grade prostate cancer risk, suggesting a biologic interaction between α-tocopherol and selenium itself or selenomethionine.