The beta-3 adrenergic agonist (CL-316,243) restores the expression of down-regulated fatty acid oxidation genes in type 2 diabetic mice.

Author(s): Kumar A,  Shiloach J,  Betenbaugh MJ,  Gallagher EJ

Journal: Nutr Metab (Lond)

Date: 2015

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): NSRG

PubMed ID: 25784953

PMC ID: PMC4362840

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The hallmark of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is hyperglycemia, although there are multiple other metabolic abnormalities that occur with T2D, including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To advance T2D prevention and develop targeted therapies for its treatment, a greater understanding of the alterations in metabolic tissues associated with T2D is necessary. The aim of this study was to use microarray analysis of gene expression in metabolic tissues from a mouse model of pre-diabetes and T2D to further understand the metabolic abnormalities that may contribute to T2D. We also aimed to uncover the novel genes and pathways regulated by the insulin sensitizing agent (CL-316,243) to identify key pathways and target genes in metabolic tissues that can reverse the diabetic phenotype. METHODS: Male MKR mice on an FVB/n background and age matched wild-type (WT) FVB/n mice were used in all experiments. Skeletal muscle, liver and fat were isolated from prediabetic (3 week old) and diabetic (8 week old) MKR mice. Male MKR mice were treated with CL-316,243. Skeletal muscle, liver and fat were isolated after the treatment period. RNA was isolated from the metabolic tissues and subjected to microarray and KEGG database analysis. RESULTS: Significant decreases in the expression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation genes were found in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of adult MKR mice, and the liver of pre-diabetic MKR mice, compared to WT controls. After treatment with CL-316,243, the circulating glucose and insulin concentrations in the MKR mice improved, an increase in the expression of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation genes was observed in addition to a decrease in the expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases. These genes were not previously known to be regulated by CL-316,243 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers novel genes that may contribute to pharmacological reversal of insulin resistance and T2D and may be targets for treatment. In addition, it explains the lower free fatty acid levels in MKR mice after treatment with CL-316,243 and furthermore, it provides biomarker genes such as ACAA1 and HSD17b4 which could be further probed in a future study.