Biomarker analysis of fucosylated kininogen through depletion of lectin reactive heterophilic antibodies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Author(s): Wang M,  Shen J,  Herrera H,  Singal A,  Swindell C,  Renquan L,  Mehta A

Journal: J Immunol Methods

Date: 2018 Nov

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): GLYCO

PubMed ID: 30144410

PMC ID: not available

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for >700,000 deaths worldwide, largely related to poor rates of diagnosis. Our previous work identified glycoproteins with increased levels of fucosylation in HCC. Plate-based assays to measure this change were compromised by increased levels of heterophilic antibodies with glycan lacking terminal galactose residues, which allowed for increased binding to the lectins used in these assays. To address this issue, we developed a multi-step protein A/G incubation and filtration method to remove the contaminating signal. However, this method was time consuming and expensive so alternative methods were desired. Herein, we describe a simple method relying on PEG precipitation that allows for the removal of IgG and IgM but retention of glycoproteins of interest. This method was tested on three sample sets, two internal and one external. PEG depletion of heterophilic IgG and IgM reduced in the coefficient of variation as observed with the protein A/G filtration method from 26.82% to 7.50% and allowed for the measurement of fucosylated protein. This method allowed for the measurement of fucosylated kininogen, which could serve as a biomarker of HCC. In conclusion, a new and simple method for the depletion of heterophilic IgG and IgM was developed and allowed for the analysis of fucosylated kininogen in patients with liver disease.