Simultaneous targeting of 5-LOX-COX and ODC block NNK-induced lung adenoma progression to adenocarcinoma in A/J mice.
Journal: Am J Cancer Res
Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CADRG
PubMed ID: 27293987
PMC ID: PMC4889708
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Targeting complementary pathways will achieve better treatment efficacy than a single agent high-dose strategy that could increase risk of side effects and tumor resistance. To target COX-2, 5-LOX, and ODC simultaneously, we tested the effects of a dual 5-LOX-COX inhibitor, licofelone, and an ODC inhibitor, DFMO, alone and in combination, on NNK-induced lung tumors in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with NNK (10 μmol/mouse, single dose, i.p.) and randomized to different treatment groups. Three weeks after injection, mice were fed control or experimental diets (DFMO 1500/3000 ppm, licofelone 200/400 ppm, or a low-dose combination of 1500 ppm DFMO and 200 ppm licofelone) for 17 or 34 weeks. Both agents significantly inhibited tumor formation in a dose-dependent manner. As anticipated more adenomas and adenocarcinomas were observed at 17 and 34 weeks, respectively. Importantly, low dose combination of DFMO and licofelone showed more pronounced effects at 17 or 34 weeks in inhibiting the total tumor formation (~60%, p < 0.0001) and adenocarcinoma (~65%, p < 0.0001) compared to individual high dose of DFMO (~44% and 46%, p < 0.0001) and licofelone (~48% and 55%, p < 0.0001). DFMO and combination-treated mice lung tumors exhibited modulated ODC pathway components (Oat, Oaz, SRM, SMS, and SAT, p < 0.05) along with decreased proliferation (PCNA, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A) and increased expression of p53, p21 and p27 compared to mice fed control diet. Both DFMO and licofelone significantly inhibited tumor inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest that a low-dose combined treatment targeting inflammation and polyamine synthesis may provide effective chemoprevention.