Fruit and vegetable assessment: performance of 2 new short instruments and a food frequency questionnaire.

Author(s): Thompson FE,  Subar AF,  Smith AF,  Midthune D,  Radimer KL,  Kahle LL,  Kipnis V

Journal: J Am Diet Assoc

Date: 2002 Dec

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): BRG

PubMed ID: 12487538

PMC ID: not available

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of 2 new short assessment instruments and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure intake of fruit and vegetables. The "All-Day" screener asks frequency and portion size questions about 9 food items. The "By-Meal" screener is similar, except that it asks about 2 of those 9 food items in terms of mealtime. DESIGN: Survey participants completed 4 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls over 1 year, a self-administered FFQ 1 to 2 months later, and 1 of 2 self-administered screeners after an additional 7 months. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Participating were 202 men and 260 women aged 20 to 70 years living throughout the United States. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Fruit and vegetable intakes measured by each screener and the FFQ were compared with true usual intake based on a measurement error model with 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. RESULTS: Estimates of median daily servings of fruit and vegetables were as follows: For men: True intake (5.8) vs All-Day screener (5.0), By-Meal screener (5.5), and FFQ (6.6); for women: true intake (4.2) vs All-Day screener (5.0), By-Meal screener (5.4), and FFQ (6.2). Estimated correlations between the test instruments and true intake were as follows: For men: All-Day screener (0.66), By-Meal screener (0.67), FFQ (0.68); for women: All-Day screener (0.51), By-Meal screener (0.53), and FFQ (0.54). APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Both screeners might be useful to estimate median intakes of fruit and vegetable servings in US populations, but they might be less useful in accurately ranking individuals. More research is needed before using the screeners in ethnic or low-literacy populations.