Cancer prevention and screening: the next step in the era of precision medicine.

Author(s): Loomans-Kropp HA,  Umar A

Journal: NPJ Precis Oncol

Date: 2019

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CPFP, GOCRG

PubMed ID: 30701196

PMC ID: PMC6349901

Abstract: A primary mode of cancer prevention and early detection in the United States is the widespread practice of screening. Although many strategies for early detection and prevention are available, adverse outcomes, such as overdiagnosis and overtreatment, are prevalent among those utilizing these approaches. Broad use of mammography and prostate cancer screening are key examples illustrating the potential harms stemming from the detection of indolent lesions and the subsequent overtreatment. Furthermore, there are several cancers for which prevention strategies do not currently exist. Clinical and experimental evidence have expanded our understanding of cancer initiation and progression, and have instructed the development of improved, precise modes of cancer prevention and early detection. Recent cancer prevention and early detection innovations have begun moving towards the integration of molecular knowledge and risk stratification profiles to allow for a more accurate representation of at-risk individuals. The future of cancer prevention and early detection efforts should emphasize the incorporation of precision cancer prevention integration where screening and cancer prevention regimens can be matched to one's risk of cancer due to known genomic and environmental factors.