Low-level parental mosaicism affects the recurrence risk of holoprosencephaly.

Author(s): Hu P,  Martinez AF,  Kruszka P,  Berger S,  Roessler E,  Muenke M

Journal: Genet Med

Date: 2019 Apr

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): BRG

PubMed ID: 30197418

PMC ID: not available

Abstract: PURPOSE: De novo variants (DNVs) represent an important fraction of the pathogenic variant burden in holoprosencephaly (HPE). However, unexpected recurrences can occur, as evidenced by multiple affected children harboring the same apparently DNV. This study was performed to estimate the rate of parental mosaicism in a cohort of patients with HPE. METHODS: We developed a targeted capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 153 genes with potential implication in HPE. Sequencing data from a cohort of 136 HPE family trios were analyzed to identify probands with apparently DNVs. DNVs were examined in the proband and their parents to detect any deviations from the expected ~50/50 allele ratio of true heterozygosity. Selected variants were confirmed by Droplet Digital™ polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). RESULTS: We identified 28 high-confidence DNVs, 20 of which occurred in known HPE genes. Nineteen of the 20 variants (95%) were pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Sequence data analysis showed evidence of parental mosaicism in five cases, for an overall mosaicism rate of 26%. In addition, we found evidence for likely postzygotic events in four cases (50%). CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity methods, such as high-depth NGS and ddPCR, are essential to providing an accurate assessment of recurrence risk in HPE families with apparently DNVs.