Modulation by licofelone and celecoxib of experimentally induced cancer and preneoplastic lesions in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Author(s): Balansky R,  Ganchev G,  Iltcheva M,  Nikolov M,  La Maestra S,  Micale RT,  D'Agostini F,  Steele VE,  De Flora S

Journal: Curr Cancer Drug Targets

Date: 2015

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CADRG

PubMed ID: 25687474

PMC ID: not available

Abstract: Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis. Accordingly, anti-inflammatory agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provide a rational strategy in cancer chemoprevention. We assayed celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and licofelone, an inhibitor of COX-1, COX-2, and 5- lipoxygenase (5-LOX), for the ability to modulate carcinogenesis in neonatal mice exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) for 4 months and thereafter kept in filtered air for 3.5 months. A preliminary toxicity study and a chemoprevention study involved the use of 591 Swiss H mice. Exposure to MCS caused a variety of pulmonary emphysema, alveolar and bronchial epithelial hyperplasias, proliferation of blood vessels, microadenomas, adenomas and malignant tumors, as well as kidney tubular and urinary bladder papillary epithelial hyperplasias. Celecoxib (1600 mg/kg diet) and even better licofelone (960 mg/kg diet) were able to significantly attenuate the MCS-induced alterations of inflammatory nature, including pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias and microadenomas and urinary tract hyperplastic lesions when given to mice according to a protocol that mimics an intervention in current smokers. Moreover, celecoxib attenuated the yield of lung adenomas and both NSAIDs showed some involvement in lowering the progression to cancer in the lung. Celecoxib exhibited some protective effects even when given according to a protocol involving its administration after discontinuation of exposure to MCS. However, both agents and especially celecoxib showed some hepatotoxicity and affected survival and body weight gain of mice when administered to MCS-exposed mice in the long term.