Subchronic oral toxicity and metabolite profiling of the p53 stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in rats and dogs.

Author(s): Johnson WD,  Muzzio M,  Detrisac CJ,  Kapetanovic IM,  Kopelovich L,  McCormick DL

Journal: Toxicology

Date: 2011 Nov 18

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CADRG

PubMed ID: 21864638

PMC ID: PMC3195508

Abstract: CP-31398 (N'-[2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-4-quinazolinyl]-N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine dihydrochloride) is a styrylquinazoline that stabilizes the DNA binding conformation of p53, thereby maintaining the activity of p53 as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. In consideration of the potential use of p53 stabilizers for cancer prevention and therapy, 28-day studies (with recovery) were performed to characterize the toxicity of CP-31398 in rats and dogs. In the rat study, groups of 15 CD rats/sex received daily gavage exposure to CP-31398 at 0, 40, 80, or 160mg/kg/day (0, 240, 480, or 960mg/m(2)/day). In the dog study, groups of five beagle dogs received daily gavage exposure to CP-31398 at 0, 10, 20, or 40mg/kg/day (0, 200, 400, or 800mg/m(2)/day). The high dose of CP-31398 induced mortality in both species: seven male rats and four female rats died as a result of hepatic infarcts, and two female dogs died as a result of hepatic necrosis without evidence of thrombosis. No deaths were seen in the mid- or low-dose groups in either species. In dogs, sporadic emesis was seen in the high dose and mid dose groups, and reductions in body weight gain were observed in all drug-exposed groups. CP-31398 induced mild anemia in both species; clinical pathology data also demonstrated hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, inflammatory reactions, and coagulopathies in rats in the high dose and mid dose groups. Treatment-related microscopic changes in high dose and mid dose rats were identified in the liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow, lung, adrenals, spleen, thymus, skeletal muscle, and ovary; microscopic changes in the liver, heart, lung, and adrenals persisted through the recovery period. In dogs, microscopic changes were identified in the central nervous system, lung, and liver; changes in all tissues remained at the end of the recovery period. The liver is the primary site of limiting toxicity for CP-31398 in rats, and is also a key site of toxicity in dogs. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for subchronic oral administration of CP-31398 is 80mg/kg/day (480mg/m(2)/day) in rats and 20mg/kg/day (400mg/m(2)/day) in dogs. Although only modest and apparently reversible toxicities (microscopic changes in rats; reductions in body weight gain and alterations in red cell parameters in dogs) were seen in the low dose groups, no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for CP-31398 could not be established for either species. The toxicity of CP-31398 suggests that this agent may not be suitable for use in cancer prevention. However, should in vivo antitumor efficacy be achievable at doses that do not induce limiting toxicity, CP-31398 may have utility as a cancer therapeutic. Modification of the primary sites of CP-31398 metabolism (N-demethylation of the alkyl side chain; hydroxylation and O-demethylation of the styryl benzene group) may result in the development of CP-31398 analogs with comparable pharmacologic activity and reduced toxicity.