Chemoprevention of colon and small intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice by licofelone, a novel dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor: potential implications for human colon cancer prevention.

Author(s): Mohammed A,  Janakiram NB,  Li Q,  Choi CI,  Zhang Y,  Steele VE,  Rao CV

Journal: Cancer Prev Res (Phila)

Date: 2011 Dec

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CADRG

PubMed ID: 21885812

PMC ID: PMC3232346

Abstract: Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), such as COX-2, is a potential target for colon cancer inhibition and, in part, contributes to cardiovascular side effects associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive effects of a novel dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor, licofelone {[6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-7-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-5-yl] acetic acid}, in APC(Min/+) mouse intestinal tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male and female APC(Min/+) mice (n = 10 per group) were fed with control American Institute of Nutrition-76A diet or diets containing 150 or 300 ppm licofelone for 14 weeks (∼100 days), and intestinal tumors were evaluated for tumor multiplicity and size. Licofelone significantly inhibited total intestinal tumor multiplicity and size in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.0001; mean tumors for 0, 150, and 300 ppm: 48.8, 17, and 8, respectively, in male mice; and 34.3, 8.8, and 5.5, respectively, in female mice). Licofelone at high dose showed more than 83% (P < 0.0001) tumor inhibition in both genders of mice. One hundred and fifty and 300 ppm licofelone resulted in 86% to 97% inhibition of polyps having size greater than 2 mm. One hundred and fifty and 300 ppm licofelone caused more than 72% and 100% inhibition of colonic tumors, respectively. Importantly, in mice fed with licofelone, tumors showed significantly reduced proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (70%, P < 0.0001), increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells (75%, P < 0.0001), and there was dose-dependent suppression of serum triglycerides (71%-83%, P < 0.0001), decreased inflammatory cytokines; and decreased COX and 5-LOX activities (57%-64%, P < 0.0001). Also, compared with 300 ppm celecoxib, 300 ppm licofelone provided better efficacy in suppressing tumor growth. These observations show that a novel dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor dramatically suppresses small intestinal and colonic tumor formation in APC(Min/+) mice.