Variation in genes involved in the immune response and prostate cancer risk in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Author(s): Winchester DA,  Till C,  Goodman PJ,  Tangen CM,  Santella RM,  Johnson-Pais TL,  Leach RJ,  Xu J,  Zheng SL,  Thompson IM,  Lucia MS,  Lippmann SM,  Parnes HL,  Dluzniewski PJ,  Isaacs WB,  De Marzo AM,  Drake CG,  Platz EA

Journal: Prostate

Date: 2015 Sep

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): PUCRG, NCORP

PubMed ID: 26047319

PMC ID: PMC4536102

Abstract: BACKGROUND: We previously found that inflammation in benign prostate tissue is associated with an increased odds of prostate cancer, especially higher-grade disease. Since part of this link may be due to genetics, we evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes and prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. METHODS: We genotyped 16 candidate SNPs in IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12(p40), IFNG, MSR1, RNASEL, TLR4, and TNFA and seven tagSNPs in IL10 in 881 prostate cancer cases and 848 controls negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy. Cases and controls were non-Hispanic white and frequency matched on age and family history. We classified cases as lower (Gleason sum <7; N = 674) and higher (7-10; N = 172) grade, and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for age and family history. RESULTS: The minor allele (C) of rs3212227 in IL12(p40) was associated with an increased risk of total (log additive: OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.10-1.53; P-trend = 0.0017) and lower-grade (OR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.15-1.62; P-trend = 0.0004) prostate cancer. The minor allele (A) of rs4073 in IL8 was possibly associated with a decreased risk of higher-grade (OR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.64-1.02; P-trend = 0.07), but not total disease. None of the other candidates was associated with risk. The minor alleles of IL10 tagSNPs rs1800890 (A; OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.75-0.99; P-trend = 0.04) and rs3021094 (C; OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.03-1.66, P-trend = 0.03) were associated with risk; the latter also with lower- (P-trend = 0.04) and possibly higher- (P-trend = 0.06) grade disease. These patterns were similar among men with PSA <2 ng/ml at biopsy. CONCLUSION: Variation in some immune response genes may be associated with prostate cancer risk. These associations were not fully explained by PSA-associated detection bias. Our findings generally support the role of inflammation in the etiology of prostate cancer.