Depressive Trajectories and Risk of Disability and Mortality in Older Adults: Longitudinal Findings From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

Author(s): Murphy RA,  Hagaman AK,  Reinders I,  Steeves JA,  Newman AB,  Rubin SM,  Satterfield S,  Kritchevsky SB,  Yaffe K,  Ayonayon HN,  Nagin DS,  Simonsick EM,  Penninx BW,  Harris TB,  Health ABC Study

Journal: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci

Date: 2016 Feb

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): CPFP

PubMed ID: 26273025

PMC ID: PMC4723662

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Depression and disability are closely linked. Less is known regarding clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms over time and risk of disability and mortality. METHODS: Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression scale (CES-D10) were assessed over a 4-year period in men (n = 1032) and women (n = 1070) aged 70-79 years initially free from disability. Depressive symptom trajectories were defined with group-based models. Disability (2 consecutive reports of severe difficulty walking one-quarter mile or climbing 10 steps) and mortality were determined for 9 subsequent years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Three trajectories were identified: persistently nondepressed (54% of men, 54% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 1.16 and 1.46), mildly depressed and increasing (40% of men, 38% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 3.60 and 4.35), and depressed and increasing (6% of men, 8% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 7.44 and 9.61). Disability and mortality rates per 1,000 person years were 41.4 and 60.3 in men and 45.8 and 41.9 in women. Relative to nondepressed, men in the mildly depressed (HR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.89) and depressed trajectories (HR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.33-3.38) had increased disability; women in the depressed trajectory had increased disability (HR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.37-2.96). Men in the mildly depressed (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52) and depressed trajectories (HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.10-2.41) had elevated mortality risk; women exhibited no mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of depressive symptoms without recovery may predict disability and mortality in apparently healthy older populations, thus underscoring the importance of monitoring depressive symptoms in geriatric care.