Effects of armodafinil and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia on sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness in cancer survivors.

Author(s): Garland SN,  Roscoe JA,  Heckler CE,  Barilla H,  Gehrman P,  Findley JC,  Peoples AR,  Morrow GR,  Kamen C,  Perlis ML

Journal: Sleep Med

Date: 2016 Apr

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): NCORP

PubMed ID: 27318221

PMC ID: PMC5267578

Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study involves the analysis of a secondary outcome of a trial examining whether cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a wake-promoting medication (armodafinil), or both results in greater improvement in prospectively assessed sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness than a placebo-alone group among a heterogeneous group of cancer survivors. Whether or not armodafinil alone, and/or when combined with CBT-I, affected adherence with CBT-I was evaluated. DESIGN: This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. SETTING: This study was conducted at two northeastern academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight cancer survivors with chronic insomnia were recruited between October 2008 and November 2012. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions: 1) CBT-I and placebo (CBT-I+P); 2) CBT-I and armodafinil (CBT-I + A); 2) armodafinil alone (ARM); or 4) placebo alone (PLA). INTERVENTIONS: CBT-I was delivered in seven weekly individual therapy sessions (three in person, four via telephone). The armodafinil dosage was 50 mg BID. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Sleep continuity was measured with daily sleep diaries assessing sleep latency (SL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and total sleep time (TST). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) measured daytime sleepiness. Compared to the PLA group, the CBT-I+P and CBT-I+A groups reported a significant reduction in SL with effect sizes of 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. A significant reduction was observed in WASO in the CBT-I+A group with an effect size of 0.64. An increasing trend of TST was observed in the CBT-I+P, CBT-I+A, and PLA groups, but not in the ARM group. No statistically significant reductions in daytime sleepiness (ESS) were observed for any of the groups. CONCLUSION: CBT-I alone and in combination with armodafinil caused significant improvement in sleep continuity. The addition of armodafinil did not appear to improve daytime sleepiness or enhance adherence to CBT-I.