Checking for completeness of 24-h urine collection using para-amino benzoic acid not necessary in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition study.

Author(s): Subar AF,  Midthune D,  Tasevska N,  Kipnis V,  Freedman LS

Journal: Eur J Clin Nutr

Date: 2013 Aug

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): BRG

PubMed ID: 23486508

PMC ID: not available

Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The orally administered para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) is known to have near 100% excretion in urine and is used as a measure of 24-h urine collection completeness (referred to as PABAcheck). The purpose was to examine the effect of including urine collections deemed incomplete based on PABAcheck in a dietary measurement error study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study was conducted in 1999-2000 and included 484 men and women aged 40-69 years. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recalls were evaluated using recovery biomarkers that included urinary nitrogen and potassium from two 24-h urine collections. Statistical modeling determined the measurement error properties of dietary assessment instruments. In the original analyses, PABAcheck was used as a measure of complete urine collection; incomplete collections were either excluded or adjusted to acceptable levels. The OPEN data were reanalyzed including all urine collections and by using criteria based on self-reported missing voids to assess the differences. RESULTS: Means and coefficients of variation for biomarker-based protein and potassium intakes, and measurement error model-based correlations and attenuation factors were similar regardless of whether PABAcheck or missed voids were considered. CONCLUSION: PABAcheck may not be required in large population-based biomarker studies. However, until there are more analyses evaluating the necessity of a PABAcheck, it is recommended that PABA be given to all participants, but not necessarily analyzed. Then, PABAcheck could be used selectively as a marker of completeness among the collections in which low levels of biomarker are detected or for which noncompliance is suspected.