Early discharge as a mediator of greater ICU-level care requirements in patients not enrolled on the AAML0531 clinical trial: a Children's Oncology Group report.

Author(s): Getz KD,  Miller TP,  Seif AE,  Li Y,  Huang YS,  Alonzo T,  Gerbing R,  Sung L,  Hall M,  Bagatell R,  Gamis A,  Fisher BT,  Aplenc R

Journal: Cancer Med

Date: 2016 Sep

Major Program(s) or Research Group(s): NCORP

PubMed ID: 27474232

PMC ID: PMC5055162

Abstract: Previous data suggest that patients enrolled on clinical trials for treatment of cancer have better overall survival than patients who do not enroll; however, short-term outcomes relative to trial enrollment and corresponding mediators have not been assessed. A cohort of pediatric patients with newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia was assembled from the Pediatric Health Information System. We evaluated whether patients not enrolled onto Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 had greater intensive care unit (ICU)-level requirements than enrolled patients and whether early discharge after chemotherapy administration mediated this association. Patients not enrolled on AAML0531 were more likely to be discharged early (aOR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.90) and to require ICU-level care (aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) than enrolled patients, but early discharge explained only a small proportion (12.3%) of the absolute difference in ICU-level care risk. The direct effect of nonenrollment on the need for ICU-level care was significant (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.94), whereas the indirect effect mediated through early discharge was not (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19). Factors other than postchemotherapy discharge strategy drive the difference in ICU utilization by trial enrollment status.